Reading The Majestic Quran means different things to different people. From childhood we have been conditioned to tilawat, the recitation of the Quran for the sake of sawab, Divine reward; that’s great, but let me add that you should read the English translation too, study the Quran with your mind and experience the life-changing message of Allah’s book. It will improve your spiritual health, your character and bring you closer to family and friends. The reading of the Quran in English will give you spiritual energy and boost your physical, psychological and spiritual well-being. Here is your daily Quran reading plan during Ramadhan:

Take up the feel-good challenge: Read the majestic Quran every day
This summary of each Juz can be read in less than 10 minutes. By setting the goal of reading the whole of the Quran this Ramadhan for yourself, you will get encouragement to learn and understand and achieve satisfaction at the end. Without learning new things, you cannot grow. So, start today by reading the Majestic Quran, and with Allah’s help work towards it every day.

Put aside 10 minutes daily for the English reading of this summary. Then ask yourself: what is the Quran saying to me? How can I live according to this teaching? How will I monitor my progress? Do this for the whole Ramadhan.

The recitation of the Quran during Ramadhan is Sunnah of beloved Messenger
One night during the month of Ramaḍan, the Prophet, stayed in the masjid after the ʿishā’ prayer and performed additional ṣalāh. Some ṣaḥābah (companions) joined him. The next night he did the same accompanied by more ṣaḥābah and the third night saw an even greater number. However, on the fourth night he left the masjid immediately after praying the farḍ prayer. The next night he did the same when asked about this he said, “I don’t want to burden my followers.” He told the Sahaba, “I read the whole of the Quran in Ramadhan with Jibreel”. It was this Sunnah that prompted the early Muslims to adopt the practice of reading the complete Quran in the month of Ramadhan. To facilitate this the Quran was divided into 30 equal parts. Each part is called Juz (Plural Ajza).

When ʿUmar, may Allāh be pleased with him, became khalīfah, he saw large numbers of people staying behind after ʿishā’, praying individually. After consulting scholarly ṣahābah, he established the tarāwīḥ prayer as a regular congregational prayer during Ramaḍan. He instructed that it should be lead by a competent ḥāfiẓ (person who has memorised the Qur’ān), and a Juz of the Quran should be read each night. So everyone would be able to listen to the entire Quran at least once a year.

The congregational Tarāwīḥ is now performed as 20 rakʿahs of ṣalāh, performed two units at a time with a rest period between every four rakʿahs, which was originally used for making ṭawāf (circumambulation) of the Kaʿbah in Makkah and performance dhikr in Madinah. Some masjids organise speakers for these times, while others perform a group dūʿā’.

Summary of Juz 1

1. Surat al-Fatiha
In the name of Allah, the Kind, the Caring.
All praises are for Allah the Lord of the worlds. The Kind, the Caring. The Controller of Judgement Day. We worship You alone and from You alone we seek help. Guide us on the straight path: the path of those You favoured, not those who are condemned or the misguided ones.

2. Surat al-Baqara
The first Juz opens with the Surat al-Baqara revealed over two years in Madinah after the migration of the Prophet ﷺ in 622 CE (Common Era). By now two-thirds of the Quran had been revealed in Makkah during a tense situation. In Madinah, Muslims faced new challenges: settling down in a new city with Arabs and Jews. The two Arab tribes, the Aus and the Khazraj, both with a long history of rivalry. There were three Jewish tribes, they had moved to Madinah after they were expelled from Jerusalem by the Romans. The Jews were literate, skilled and affluent compared to the Arabs and believed they were “the chosen people”.

The surah opens by describing the people of Madinah and dividing them into three groups: the believers, the disbelievers and the hypocrites. The Faithful are described as having firm belief in Allah, the unseen realities and the Hereafter; they pray regularly and give charity generously. The disbelievers have locked minds unwilling to listen. Then follows a section listing the evil habits of hypocrites: deceivers and liars, who mock the believers and make trouble, they are ignorant, misguided, and disorientated.

Worship is a way of being thankful to the Lord who created and sustains and cares for humanity. Those who worship him will have Paradise, an amazing reward.

The creation of Adam and Eve, the first humans, is narrated and Adam is designated the lofty title of Khalifa, the Divine representative on earth. Angels were ordered to prostrate before him, but Satan refused and was expelled from Paradise. Adam is honoured by Allah and educated about all the things in the universe. When he and his wife Eve mistakenly eat from the forbidden tree, they are expelled from paradise and sent down to earth.

The story of the Jews (40 to 141) dominates the rest of the first Juz. The Jews are the children of prophet Yaqub, the grandson of Ibrahim. Allah reminds them of His favours: a special contract with them gave them faith, law and scripture. They are reminded how Allah saved them from the slavery of Pharaoh. Unfortunately, they did not all fully appreciate this and were ungrateful. Despite their betrayal, Allah blessed them with Manna, and Salva, delicious pre-cooked meat and dessert respectively.

In the middle of the Juz is the story of the cow, from which the Surah takes its name. A man was murdered, but an innocent person sentenced to death. Musa told them to stop the execution, and to investigate the truth. They were to sacrifice a cow and swipe the dead body with it, as they did so, the murdered person rose from the dead and identified the murderer. As a commentary on the story, the Quran laments about people who after seeing such miracles still refused to believe in resurrection. What is the relevance of this story in a surah that lays down many laws? To point out that human society is not based on laws only, but civil society must respect moral and social values and spiritual ideals. A legal system is only one part of a flourishing civilisation. The Story of the Cow highlights the idea that attitudes and values lie at the heart of a just society.

Over the next few sections, the Quran pours scorn on the Israelites for breaking the contract, killing prophets and being arrogantly stubborn. They are reminded that they disrespected the Angels, Jibreel and Mikeel, and prophet Sulayman. They accused Sulayman of magic and Allah exonerated him from such fraudulent practices.

The Messenger eagerly preached and invited the Jews of Madinah to accept Islam. However, their religious pride, tribal jealousy and economic prowess stopped them. Furthermore, their love of this world blinded them from seeing the truth, it points out their blind pursuit for worldly power. By recalling their worldliness and carefree attitude to Allah the Muslims are being warned to take note.

The supreme status of the Messenger is highlighted in the passage by teaching believers how to address him properly. They are invited to become one community and stop the sectarian bickering. After making sincere and powerful arguments to embrace Islam, the Quran categorically says people are free to worship as they like (114). The vastness of Allah’s creation is proof of His existence; the disbeliever’s rejection does not diminish His Glory.

Jewish history began three thousand years ago with their great grandfather Ibrahim. It opens with his prayer for his descendants who he settled in Makkah. The prayer for a Messenger to be raised among them. An Allusion to the Beloved Messenger Muhammad. So, why don’t you accept him? Ibrahim’s faith was deep, and he had a long-term vision for his children including his children from Ismaeel too. Before ending the story of the Jews, Yaqoob’s final advise to his twelve sons is mentioned, “They say to you: “Become Jews…”, or: “Become Christians and you will be guided”. Tell them: “In fact, our religion is the religion of Ibrahim, who was a true Hanif, and was not an idolater”. Say: “We believe in Allah and in what is revealed to us, and in what was revealed to Ibrahim …” (Al-Baqara:139)

These sections describe the unity of the Abrahamic faiths by pointing out that Islam is not a new religion, but verifies, confirms and continues the teachings of Judaism and Christianity. They too accept the belief in one God and of serving humanity. Islam replaces Judaism and Christianity as the final religion of Allah, so the Quran is The Final Revelation.

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Summary of Juz 2

Surat al-Baqara continued

In Madinah, the Muslims were free to practice Islam in a way they were not able to in Makkah. They are encouraged to develop a civil society defined by a belief system with spiritual and moral values and underscored by legal and political standards. The surah established a clear legal context to support this spiritual and moral social structure and to tackle the sickness of an uncaring society. In addition, political and economic principles were laid down including:

  • The change of the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Makkah (142). This signalled the end of the hegemony of the Jewish people. It heralded the new dawn of Islam; commitment to Allah and service of humanity as a mark of distinction. Furthermore, there is the motivation for everyone to set goals and direction for their lives. This requires patience and spiritual help from Allah.
  • The four forbidden foods (172); pork, blood, carcasses and animals slaughtered without invoking Allah’s name.
  • When questions on alcohol, gambling, charity and shortchanging orphans were asked, the Quran disapproved such behaviour.
  • Fasting in Ramadan is made obligatory (183).
  • Muslims are given permission to fight against others in defence (190).
  • The morals and manners of Hajj and Umrah are explained (197).
  • Family laws; the law of retribution (178); writing down one’s will (180); the prohibition of marriage with non-Muslims (222); divorce and marital discord (228–32).
  • Entering Paradise or Hell may be determined by who one marries.
  • An answer to a question about menstruation and sexual intimacy.
  • The ruling about settling marital disputes.
  • The rights and responsibilities of married couples and divorcees.
  • Third-time divorce.
  • Avoiding injustice when going through a divorce.
  • A father has to pay maintenance expenses for his children.
  • The waiting period for widows, and encouragement to remarry.
  • Divorce ruling before the marriage is consummated.
  • Never neglect your prayers under any circumstances.
  • Further rulings on maintenance for widows and divorcees.
  • Commercial transactions; the prohibition of earning interest (275); business contracts; commercial transactions and guarantees for loans (282–3).

Salvation lies in submission to Allah

An overview of Juz 2 reveals an important thread that weaves it together “Human salvation lies in complete submission and commitment to the Lord of the Worlds”. This is comprised of the following five principles:

  1. Firm faith in Allah, the One God.
  2. Belief in his Majestic rule and Power.
  3. Belief in Allah as the sole creator of the Universe.
  4. Belief in His messengers who have been sent to guide humanity and to make clear the straight path that will help creation to achieve the pleasure of the Creator.
  5. Belief in life after death.

Such beliefs help us to live a righteous life, a good life pleasing to the Lord and conducive to healthy living and well-being. This is not a mechanical performance of ritual exercises. Instead, it is conscious awareness of and attentiveness to the Divine, in such a way that one feels His presence everywhere. A natural outcome of this way of living is the belief in a resurrection and Judgement Day, signifying that this life is an opportunity to gain the pleasure of Allah, and therefore to secure a place near Him in Paradise.

Diversity among various faiths and ways of living

The Quran presents diversity in creation as “Allah’s way” and nothing unusual or strange about it. Say, “We believe in Allah and what is revealed to us, and what was revealed to Ibrahim, Ismael, Ishaq, Yaqub and the tribes, as well as what was given to Musa and Isa, and what was given to all the Messengers from their Lord, we make no distinction between any one of them, we are Muslims” (136).

Some key questions

The new community in Madinah faced many challenges, which were addressed through the following questions:

  • How should Muslims relate to the Jews in Madinah?
  • What is Ibrahim to Muslims? Ibrahim’s prayer for Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was:  “Our Lord raise among them a noble messenger, who will recite your verses unto them and teach them the Book and the Wisdom, and will purify them; you are the Almighty, the Wise” (129). In other words, the religion of Islam is the fulfilment of the prayer of Prophet Ibrahim.
  • Should Muslims take up arms against the enemy?
  • Fighting is compulsory for you although you dislike it. Sometimes you dislike something that is good for you and sometimes you like something that is bad for you. Only Allah knows the truth, but you do not know (216).
  • The Muslims were given permission for the first time to take up arms against the enemy to defend themselves. This contrasted with the policy in Makkah, where they could not physically retaliate against aggression.
  • What is the nature of a Muslim’s relationship with Allah?

“When My servants ask you about Me, tell them I am near; I answer the prayer of the prayerful whenever he prays to Me. Therefore, obey Me and believe in Me so that you may be guided” (186).

As we reach the end of the Juz, the Surah returns to the story of the Israelites, the sacred Ark, which contained the relics of Musa and Harun was used by them as a centre of spiritual energy through which they won against their enemies. They are reminded how they sought a king and Allah gave them Talut and later Dawud.

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Summary of Juz 3

Surat al-Baqara continued

The opening verse of this Juz points to the spiritual hierarchy, prophets are honoured according to their ranks. This supported the Israelites idea of ‘being favoured people’. However, Allah sets the rule of meritocracy, and that is based on faith, efforts and Divine grace. The ‘Verse of the Throne’ is a glorious portrayal of Allah’s majesty, power and control of the universe, its message is that all humans can attain Allah’s friendship and nearness through virtuous deeds.

Freedom of religion is a recurrent theme of the Quran
“There is no compulsion in religion. Guidance is clearly distinct from error. Whoever rejects false gods and believes solely in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold, which will never break. Allah is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing” (256).

The theme of Allah’s friendship of the believers continues and examples are given of how He cared for His friends:

  • Ibrahim defeats the tyrant Emperor Namrood.
  • Uzair is shown Allah’s power over life and death.
  • Ibrahim witnesses the resurrection of dead birds.

The attitudes and behaviours of the friends of Allah are characterised by generosity. They are willing to spend in the way of Allah what they have. Parables are told to show their virtue in glowing terms:

  • Parable of a single grain teaches that giving one pound will earn seven hundred pounds.
  • The parable of the soil-covered rock teaches the message to not be shallow and mean when giving, but to give freely without seeking favours in return.
  • Whether you give openly or secretly, do it to please Allah.
  • Recognise the genuinely needy, find a worthy cause to support.

Allah declares war on people who take usury, charging extortionate rates of interest on loans. Usury contradicts human nature, which is to be compassionate as opposed to taking advantage of the poor and exploiting them.

  • All commercial deals should be recorded and written in the presence of witnesses.
  • The place of securities and trust in business deals. Witnesses are required to protect those liable.

After so many legal orders the reader is reminded that this comes from Allah, who has knowledge of all things visible and invisible, so bear him in mind all the time, you are being watched! The Surat ends by giving details of the beliefs of faithful, just as it opened by describing their qualities. Finally, it closes with a prayer of reassurance and seeking Divine kindness.

Surat Aal-e-Imran – The Family of Imran

The third Juz continues with Surat Ale Imran, revealed after the battle of Uhud, in the Shawwal of 3 AH (Anno Hegirae, “in the year of the Hijra”). It tells the story of ‘The family of Imran,’ the father of Maryam, the mother of Prophet Isa.

The Quran is the absolute standard for goodness, the Surat opens by proclaiming that Allah’s revelation has been continuous from the beginning of time and that it includes the Torah of the Jewish Scriptures, the scrolls revealed to many other prophets and the Gospels of the Christians. The Quran is a continuation of that chain and the final revelation. So, the People of the Book are invited to embrace this final testament.

Searching for the hidden meanings of the Quran could mislead. So, the Quran warns against focusing on ambiguous and metaphorical passages and making arbitrary interpretations that go against the spirit of the divine message, thus sowing the seeds of conflict, even though, “Only Allah knows their exact meaning” (7). This kind of ‘stretching’ the meanings of divine scripture was the root of sectarianism rampant among the Jews and Christians. The Christian doctrine of the divinity of Jesus and the declaration that Jesus is the ‘son of God’ is an example of this arbitrary interpretation of the Gospel.

Worldly wealth and power aren’t a guarantee of success

The defeat of the Makkans in the Battle of Badr had confirmed this reality. The worldly wealth and luxuries are fleeting and temporary whilst the fruits of righteous life will be everlasting in paradise. This is a result of submission to Allah, a deep commitment to serving the Lord. This is true religion, the guidance and way forward. So, those who are disobedient will be punished. But the committed servants of the Lord solemnly pray: “Allah, Master of all power, You give power to anyone You will and you take it away from anyone You will.”

How do we demonstrate this commitment to Allah? “Say, if you really love Allah and have committed to Him then follow me, He will love you and forgive your sins” (31)

After explaining the nature of Islam, submission and commitment an example is given of a family who did this, the family of Imran.

The story of Maryam

The story of Maryam’s childhood is beautifully told through the miracles that occurred around her. When Prophet Zakariyya her carer saw them, he prayed. Allah blessed him with a son, Yahya. This is followed by an account of Maryam’s virgin conception and the birth of Isa. Maryam is praised as the one ‘chosen above all the women of her time’.

Maryam grows up in the holy sanctuary. She will be the mother of a great prophet, Isa. When Jibreel tells her that she will conceive ‘the spirit of Allah’ she’s scared. But she’s reassured of Allah’s blessings. Isa grew up and preached Tawhid, some followed him while others rejected him. Isa calls his disciples, and they confirm they are Muslims.

Since the Christians claimed that his miraculous birth and the miracles were proofs that he is God, the Quran explained the special nature of Isa and challenged their erroneous doctrine of Trinity. It asserted that “Isa is like Adam; [Allah] created him from dust then said to him ‘Be!’ and he was” (59).

Even though Judaism, Christianity and Islam differ in their respective beliefs they are still told to sit and talk. This plea encourages peaceful coexistence: “people of the book, let’s agree on a common statement that exists between us: we worship no one except Allah” (64). To prove the commonality of the three faiths the Quran stated: “Ibrahim was neither a Jew nor a Christian since the Torah and the Gospels were revealed much later. The three faiths are invited to follow him. This is a Quranic approach to reconciliation.

The next two passages invite both Jews and Christians to stop misleading people by clever arguments and tricks, they are no substitute for Divine guidance. They are warned against changing Allah’s words or their meanings. The Quran gives an acid test about belief in Allah, how can the prophet who was sent by Allah, ever demand that he should be worshipped? This is absurd. To prove the unity of all prophets and their singular message of Tawhid, the Quran presents an account of the conference of the prophets, when they were asked “if another messenger comes to you confirming what you have, then you must believe in him and lend him your support… they all agreed” (81).

Islam means submission to Allah, which is the only true religion. It was established by Ibrahim, preached by Musa and Isa. It is the same message Muhammed is inviting you to. Faith determines our eternal salvation, faith must be clearly understood, in words and terms that are plainly clear without any ambiguity, so the Quran cautions “lookout for words and actions that lead to apostasy” (86-91).

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Summary of Juz 4

Surat Ale-Imran-continued

The fourth Juz opens with the declaration, you will only do well when you give your best. Learn lessons from the stories of the Israelites. Muslims do not invent beliefs and practices that contradict divine teachings nor innovate. Before declaring the pilgrimage as an obligation for anyone who can afford it, the Quran gives the background of the Kaaba, in Makkah, as the first place of worship built on Earth.

A warning is given not to deny Allah’s favours. Among them, the Unity of the believers, a sense of belonging to good people. The Ansar of Madinah are reminded of their bloody and bitter past. Sectarianism is condemned, examples from the Jewish infighting are given to stress the destructive nature of disunity. The uniting power of Islam calls Muslim to play a leading role in inviting humanity to goodness and rejecting evil.  This is the special calling of Muslims. If they ignore it they will be disgraced.

Despite these criticisms of the Israelites, the Quran cautions against stereotyping people due to religion and race. Allah said: “All of them are not alike; a group among the People of the Book upholds the original teachings of the scripture, reciting Allah’s verses throughout the night as they prostrate to Him… Whatever good they do, it will never go unrewarded by Allah, Allah knows the pious.” (113-5)

This is followed by two sections full of pearls of wisdom, such as:

  • Virtuous deeds without faith in Allah are worthless
  • Friends should be chosen wisely

The story of the Battle of Uhud (121-177)

The next fifty-six verses tell the story of the battle of Uhud. Since the Makkans defeat at the Battle of Badr, they were determined to avenge their dead. So they gathered an army of 3,000 men to attack Madinah. When the Prophet ﷺ learnt of this, he held a war council. The overwhelming opinion was to go out of the city and meet the enemy in the open field. The Muslims numbered about 700.

The Messenger strategically posted fifty archers on the nearby hill, to provide cover against outflanking manoeuvres by the enemy cavalry. They were to stay there under all circumstances. However, when they saw Muslims winning the battle, they left their post and scrambled for the booty. Seeing this opportunity, the Makkan cavalry, veered round in a wide arc and attacked the Muslims from the rear. This unexpected attack resulted in the loss of many lives. Amidst all this mayhem. A rumour quickly spread that the Prophet ﷺ had been killed and this caused some Muslims to flee. However, Omar and some other companions dispelled the rumour and regrouped to defend the Prophet ﷺ. When the other Muslims learnt that the Prophet was alive, they rallied and attacked the enemy. The Quraysh fled to Makkah. The battle ended as a draw and seventy Muslims were martyred.

Hard lessons learnt from the Battle of Uhud

This was a devastating blow due to sloppy discipline and disobedience of the Prophet. The lesson was “Obey your leader.” The Quran provided a detailed analysis of what went wrong: “When you were defeating them with His help, suddenly you lost courage, argued about the order you had been given and disobeyed it, even after He had shown you what you desired – the fact is that some of you long for the world, whilst others among you long for the Hereafter” (152). A harsh criticism, but Allah reassures the Muslims, “Do not be disheartened or sad, you will come out on top if you are true believers” (139).

The next sections highlight the reasons for this defeat and the lessons, which must be learnt:

  1. The archers’ anguish about missing out on the spoils of war. Wars must never be fought for gaining booty.
  2. During times of trial ‘always stand firmly and never despair’.
  3. Never disobey the Prophet’s order.
  4. Be courageous and overcome your doubts.
  5. The defeat in the battle distinguished the hypocrites from the believers.
  6. The 70 martyrs are with their Lord, enjoying bliss in paradise.
  7. Always put your trust in Allah and get on with the job in hand.

Despite the devastating blow to the morale and reputation of the Muslims, the archers were pardoned by Allah. Consolation follows: “Allah favoured the believers when He sent them a messenger. The hypocrites were happy at the defeat of Muslims, they were warned of a dreadful punishment awaiting them. The conclusion is “tests are a part of a life of faith” and you must be patient to succeed. (185)

The opening of the Surah tells ‘those firmly grounded in knowledge’ will believe in the Quran without a doubt. These same people are praised in the last ten verses for being reflective and prayerful. The Lord will answer their prayers. What is true success? It isn’t material achievements nor military prowess. “Believers, be patient, encourage each other to be patient, be disciplined, and be mindful of Allah so that you may achieve success.” (200)

Surat An-Nisa – The women

The fourth Juz continues with Surat An-Nisa, revealed over eighteen months after the Battle of Uhud, in 3 AH/625 CE. A third of the surah discusses family issues. Since seventy Muslim men were martyred, they left behind them orphans and widows, creating families in crisis. There was a dire need for clear guidance on how to deal with this crisis. The surah lays out a series of laws concerning: the status of women, marriage, marital discord, inheritance, capital punishment for murder, the prohibition of praying under the influence of alcohol and the rights of orphans. It provides instructions on settling family disputes arising out of what is nowadays called “post-traumatic stress disorder”. It lays out clear rulings to ensure justice is done, but still emphasizes the need to be caring and loving towards orphans and one’s family. In this way, a safe space is created for the nurturing of children.

The Surah opens by stressing the need to maintain family ties, as they connect us to each other. The key to this is fairness and taking care of those who are most vulnerable. The seventy martyrs of Uhud had left behind orphans and widows so it was important to give them legal protection. Trustees of these orphans were advised to look after their property wisely and not to squander it. Similarly, the law of inheritance was announced: different shares for different relatives: the male heirs share is double that of the female. This was revolutionary legislation since it was unheard of giving women inheritance. The inheritance is distributed after the deceased’s debts have been paid and any bequest fulfilled. The maximum amount of bequest allowed is a third of the inheritance. The parent’s share is one-sixth; wife’s one quarter if there are no children, if there are children then it’s one eighth. The Quran stresses the reward for adhering to Allah’s boundaries and not violating Divine commandments.

The peace and prosperity of family life depends on the chastity of the spouses so the Quran lays down serious penalties for adultery; an evil that can destroy the harmony and success of family life.

Is repentance acceptable? Yes “However, if they repent and reform themselves, then leave them alone. Allah is the Relenting, Most Kind.” The next three sections outline the women that a man cannot marry and thereby ends some terrible unjust customs of pre-Islamic Arabia. The list of women forbidden as spouses: mothers; daughters; sisters; maternal aunts; paternal aunts; nieces from the brother’s or sister’s side; foster mothers who have suckled you, foster sisters; your mothers-in-law; the stepdaughters who are in your care from women with whom you have consummated marriage; the wives of your sons; and marrying two sisters at the same time (23).

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Summary of Juz 5

Surat An-Nisa continued

The fifth Juz opens by declaring that a man and woman can enjoy intimacy and loving relationship only through marriage. Marriage is the most cherished relationship and the dowry symbolises its importance. Only marry a believing woman, the Quran declares. Marriage is a wonderful institution where two people share pleasures and sorrows. The ingredient for a successful marriage is honesty.


Be content with your share of the deceased’s estate. Do not wish for more. Verse 34 answers the awkward question – why the unequal shares for men and women? Because men are obliged to spend on their wives, they have a bigger share in the inheritance and they must work to support the family.

Despite marriage being a loving relationship, things will go wrong, so how do you heal marital conflict? The Quran suggests ‘Mediation’ is the way. Whilst discussing family issues we are reminded about the purpose of religion: worship Allah…be kind to parents, relatives, orphans, needy, neighbours, and travellers.

Verses 44 to 57 describe some of the problems Muslims were having with the Jews of Madinah. The Quran laments about the growing jealousy and resentment and advises everyone to obey the law and the authority.

Obedience to the Messenger is a source of blessing

Good leadership is a powerful glue that holds a society together, “Believers, obey Allah, the Messenger and those in authority amongst you, if you disagree amongst yourselves over anything, then refer it to Allah and the Messenger” (59). A later verse gives a further reason why the leadership of the Prophet ﷺ was so important, explaining that, “We haven’t sent a single messenger for any purpose except he should be obeyed by the will of Allah. If only, when they wronged themselves, they were to come to you and seek Allah’s forgiveness and the Messenger too would seek forgiveness for them” (64). Those who obey the Messenger are blessed: “Whoever obeys Allah and the Messenger, these are the one Allah has favoured, like the Prophets, the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous. What wonderful companions!” (69).

Jihad isn’t for worldly gains

Verses 71 to 80 condemn Jihad for worldly gains and stress its purpose is to fight injustice and there is no escape from death when the time comes.

Tackling Hypocrisy

Verses 81 to 91 highlight the problems caused by the Hypocrites, a notorious group who were neither with the Muslims nor openly against them, they were the fifth column who always found excuses to avoid following the Shariah. The Muslims are told to ignore them and don’t worry about their rumours. The way to counter hypocrisy is, to be honest, sincere and genuine to oneself. To care and serve others, particularly members of one’s family and to show love and respect for the leadership of the community and always be courteous. These guidelines will shape a peaceful, harmonious and just society. The penalty for accidental homicide and murder (92-3). Murder incurs the death penalty and Allah’s anger.

The Quran wants to develop the character of its followers, so it is peppered with pearls of wisdom: “do not be judgmental or dismissive, instead be open, honest and transparent.” This is about the Muslims who couldn’t emigrate from Makkah. Do not be judgmental about strangers you meet, only Allah knows the true state of people’s hearts and minds. However, this does not pardon those who could have migrated but didn’t. There is a tacit encouragement to emigrate from a place where you can’t live according to your faith.

The next section: “When you are travelling in the land, you can shorten the prayer without any guilt.” (121) This dispensation is followed by a simple way of praying when in a state of fear or battle. Even in such danger, the prayer cannot be overlooked. To avoid Hell, Muslims must follow the path of Allah’s pleasure and they should not expect the Messenger to follow their whims. If he were to follow them there would be chaos and injustice. A severe warning is given “Whoever opposes the Messenger after the guidance has been made clear and follows a path other than that of the believers, We will let him continue down his chosen path until We throw him in Hell” (115).

The Satan tricks people by giving false hopes, spreading weird customs, misleading Allah’s creation by encouraging them to associate false gods with Allah. The Quran teaches: “Allah will not forgive idolatry, but He forgives whatever is less than that.” (116) However, Satan’s tactics are weak. People who Submit wholeheartedly to Islam can resist his misguidance. They are behaving like the rest of the natural world, which submits to Him, and so, “they will be admitted to gardens beneath which rivers flow, remaining there forever, Allah’s true promise” (122).

The next section revisits Safeguarding of orphans and the right of women to inherit. The order is to ‘be just’. Women are advised to seek help when facing marital disputes. “Reconciliation is the best policy, but humans tend to be selfish. So, remain righteous and mindful, Allah is aware of what you do.” (128)

Attention is drawn to the glory of Allah, as everything belongs to Him: “Whoever desires the reward of this world only, then let him know that the reward of this world and of the Hereafter are with Allah. Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing” (134).

Standing up for Justice

When these radical laws about inheritance were announced, there was a backlash from the supporters of the old customs, so the Quran inspired people to Stand up for justice and struggle against prejudice. “Believers, stand up for fairness as Allah’s witnesses even if it’s against yourselves, parents or relatives, and regardless of whether a person is wealthy or poor” (135).

The hypocrites were the masked ones, the two-faced cowards prowling around spreading mischief. They sat on the fence for the victor to emerge, before they declared faith. They are told it will be an eternal waiting. They tried to deceive Allah Almighty; they made a show of praying, the Muslims are warned against taking them as allies as they cannot be trusted.

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Summary of Juz 6

Surat An-Nisa continued

If someone is treated unfairly, they can disclose the wrongdoers’ identity. An important principle of religion is ‘it’s all or none’. You cannot choose to do one thing and leave out another, it is a complete submission or complete rejection, no half-way!

Next is the story of the Prophet Isa and how the Jews betrayed him. It also criticises the Christians for manufacturing stories around his crucifixion, resurrection and divinity. The Quran is categorical about Isa not being killed. He was raised alive to heaven and will return near the end of time. Despite this criticism of the Jews and Christians we are reminded not to stereotype, they are not all alike: some are guided and others misguided.

The process of revelation was the same for all the prophets, so Isa was no different from the rest of the prophets. So, why do you regard Isa as the son of God? “Those who deny the truth and stop others from the path of Allah have wandered far” (169).

People are warned; Do not be fanatics nor stretch the meaning of the gospels in a way that contradicts Isa’s teachings. Their beliefs, that he died for the sins of humanity, the trinity and that he was the son of God, are all false. Why do they think that Isa would be embarrassed to be called the servant of Allah? The Prophet Muhammed was great in many ways, but he was proud to be called ‘the servant of Allah’. He is the messenger a clear proof of Allah’s majesty. So, those who believe in Allah and hold firmly to their belief in Him, will be treated kindly with His grace, and He will guide them towards Himself along a straight path.

More on inheritance; those who die childless: if they had a sister, she would inherit half; If there are two sisters, they inherit two thirds (176).

Surat al-Ma’ida – The Feast

This chapter was revealed in Madinah after the Treaty of Hudaibiya, except verse 3, “Today I have completed your religion for you …” which was revealed at the Farewell Hajj 10AH/631CE. The period after the Treaty of Hudaibiya marked a new era in the history of Muslims. Now they were free to preach and propagate Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, as agreed in the treaty. The economic prowess of the Jewish tribes had now waned and the Muslims were confident and optimistic.

Allah’s contract with Muslims is laid out. It puts it in the context of the contracts the Jews and Christians had with God. They broke the law, invented false beliefs and changed some of the laws in the Torah and the Gospel. So, they were dismissed from the privilege of the favoured people of Allah. Muslims are warned, abide by the Shariah to earn Allah’s favour. Allah prefers those who obey the law.

The new Muslim state needed laws to function as a well-ordered civil society. In this surah, eighteen new laws are decreed: contracts; testimony and the importance of honest witnesses; respecting sacred months; slaughtering animals; the lawfulness of seafood; rules of entering into a state of ihram for pilgrimage; intermarriage with Jewish and Christian women; apostasy; rules for cleanliness; the penalty for stealing; the penalty for brigandage and sedition; prohibition of intoxicants and gambling; atonement for breaking an oath; hunting whilst in a state of ihram; making a will at the time of death; and the penalty for those who violate divine laws.

They are set in the context of various historical events. For example, the story of the Israelites’ refusal to obey Musa when told to enter the Holy Land. The lesson is disobeying Allah’s messengers deserves punishment; the story of the murder of Abel by Cain, an abominable crime. The relationships of various groups in the Arabian Peninsula are surveyed, and the Christian-Muslim relationship is highlighted: “You will find the nearest and most affectionate to the believers are …the Christians’ (82).

Cooperate and don’t hate

Muslims are reminded that do not let others past wrongs stop you from being cooperative. Let bygones be bygones. Hatred is a bad policy.

The next section forbids certain kinds of meat: “carrion; blood; pork; whatever is slaughtered in a name other than Allah’s; animals killed by strangulation, a blow to the body, fallen from a height, gored; eaten by beasts of prey– unless you are able to slaughter it before it dies – and anything slaughtered on the altars of idols” (3). Animals caught by hunting Dogs and trained birds of prey are halal.

Extramarital affairs are forbidden, to be pure, get married. Muslims are permitted to marry Jewish and Christian women; don’t engage in sex outside of marriage, nor have love affairs.

The five daily prayers are obligatory before the prayer perform the ritual washing of Wudu. Justice is important for building social cohesion and harmony. Behave justly, give up discrimination: “Believers, be committed to Allah as witnesses for fairness, and do not let the hatred of a community stop you from being just” (8).

The Israelites contract is revisited, some kept the contract, others neglected it. So, they are invited to follow the way of the blessed Prophet to amend their past wrongs. Particularly the Christian doctrine of Trinity, “Those who say, “The Messiah son of Maryam is God,” are denying the truth” (17).

The punishment for those who start a war is the death penalty

The next section is an invitation to get closer to Allah through mindfulness, good company, the search for a spiritual teacher and ways of doing good. This only comes from righteousness, not wealth. Another Divine law to promote justice: eye for an eye is just, but to pardon is charity.

Religious differences are by Allah’s will

“For every community in the past, We established law and a way of life. Had Allah wanted, He would have made you one nation, but He chose to test you regarding what He gave you; so, compete in doing good works. You will all return to Allah in the end, and He will inform you regarding your differences” (48). A warning against choosing sides out of fear and not being just, remember Victory is for the lovers of Allah, a harsh warning is given to those who give up their faith, they will ruin themselves.

Similarly, a warning is given to those who poke fun at the religious practices of others. “When you call to the prayer, they treat it as a joke and game since they don’t understand” (59). They’re warned: “they will suffer the curse and anger of Allah and will become like monkeys, pigs and the worshippers of false gods” (60). Christians are invited to give up Trinity so they may achieve salvation.

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Summary of Juz 7

Surat al-Ma’ida continued

The Juz opens with a tribute to Monotheistic and Godly Christians who upon hearing the Quran are moved and accept it’s message. Some people had a habit of asking too many questions, they are warned not to do so, as they could be narrowing their own choices and would regret later. This is followed by a penalty for breaking an oath, feed ten needy persons.

Wine and intoxicants like it (including recreational drugs) and gambling are made unlawful since they sow enmity and hatred between people (90). It is interesting that the revelation gives the reason behind the ban, evidence that the Quranic laws are reasonable and in the interest of society.

What is the role of the Messenger?

Deliver the message, not to coerce, nor to convert people, to believe or to reject; Islam cherishes the principle of ‘no compulsion in religion’ (101).
The Arabs were steeped in superstitions like, piercing the ears of their she-camels and dedicating them to the Idols. They had irrational beliefs in the supernatural influences of these practices believing that they could bring good or bad luck. So, they are told, “rid yourselves of the superstitions of the past generations”.

The next section deals with the appointment of witnesses to one’s will and end of life directives to prevent conflict among the heirs in the future (106).

The subject of Prophet Isa and Christians is revisited. The miracles of Prophet Isa: he blew into clay birds and they would fly; healed the blind and the lepers and raised the dead from their graves; fed large crowds (114). The Human nature of Isa and the significance of his prophethood are stressed. Those who saw his miracles misunderstood and regarded him as God. But in the Hereafter Isa will declare his innocence of this blasphemy (118).

Surat Al-Anam – The Cattle

The second part of the 7th Juz begins with this late Makkan Surah, revealed on a single occasion in full. This was a time of severe tensions between the Muslims and the idolaters. Ibn Abbas said that some Makkans told the Prophet ﷺ, “We shall not believe until you bring us a book which we can see, touch and accompanied by the angels who bear witness that it’s from Allah and that you are His messenger.” The Quran told him that even if they were to touch it with their hands, they wouldn’t believe.

Powerful arguments are presented to support beliefs of Tawhid, Risalah, and Akhirah. The title al-An‘am, “the Cattle” is derived from several references to the idolaters’ superstitious practices of dedicating animals to their idols. A verse praising the creative power of Allah opens the surah and criticises them for equating idols with Him. The only remedy for this stubbornness is submission to Sublime Lord. The Quran is a book of guidance a reminder of Judgement Day.

The Oneness of Allah is self-evident, yet the disbelievers refuse to see it, they fail to appreciate the gifts they have. Their eyes will open on the day of Judgement, they’ll make excuses but to no avail! “If you could see them on Judgement Day when they stand staring at the Fire; they will say, “If only we could be returned and, instead of denying our Lord’s signs, become believers” (27). They were fooled by worldly life, they didn’t see “This worldly life is a sport and an amusement, but the home of the Hereafter is far better for the mindful. Don’t you understand?” (32)

The Messenger was concerned about their fate, but they in return, they taunted and mocked him, so he is consoled and urged to be patient. They say, “If a sign were to come down to him from his Lord?” Say, “Allah has the power to send down a sign,” but most of them have no knowledge (37).

The next four passages teach humility: to understand one’s true worth, to help readers get this message the Quran uses examples. Humility is seen in animals that live in communities “There is no creature on land or a bird flying in the sky that does not belong to a community like yours” (38).

The blessed Messenger ﷺ is reassured that the arrogance of the idolaters is disastrous. The safest policy is to be humble. Patience in tough times makes you humble as does the company of righteous people. Finally, rely on Allah and acknowledge His greatness. Many previous communities suffered since they ignored the message. But Allah gave them a breathing space: “We opened up the floodgates of everything for them and as they were enjoying what they were given, We seized them and left them in despair” (44).

An example of humility is the Messenger himself, he made no extravagant claims for himself. The Prophet is equipped to respond to the hostile disbelievers “Say, “I am forbidden to worship those you serve besides Allah.” Say, “I won’t follow your desires because, if I did so, I would go astray and fail to be guided” (56).

The Evidence of Allah’s control over nature: How the soul travels in sleep, His knowledge of the unseen. To protect your faith, avoid gatherings where Islam is criticised and bad mouthed, do not mix with those who plot against Allah’s religion. They have adopted playful ways but you must have nothing to do with them. From here onward historical evidence for Allah’s Grandeur is provided: Ibrahim’s faith is an example. When he saw the splendour of the Heavens and the Earth, the stars, the moon and the sun rising and setting, he asked – who had created them? Ibrahim was rewarded for his unwavering faith and devoutness. He was the father of many prophets. Fifteen Prophets from his line are mentioned in the Quran.

The next section provides powerful evidence for the resurrection: “They failed to recognise the true greatness of Allah when they said, ‘Allah did not reveal anything to humanity’” (91). The disbelievers in death throes will regret it, but it will be too late. “Let out your souls, today you will be rewarded with the punishment of contempt because of what you falsely said about Allah, arrogantly rejecting His signs” (93). All are reminded they were born alone and will return alone.

More evidence for the creative power of Allah is given: “We produce pods with seeds packed together and from the flowering part of palm trees, low-hanging clusters of dates, and orchards of vines, olives and pomegranates, some alike and others different. Look at their fruits as they grow and ripen; there are signs in that for people who believe.” (99) He is the Originator of the universe. “He created everything, and He knows everything. Such is Allah, your Lord; there is no god but Him, the Creator of everything, so worship Him. He governs everything. Our eyes cannot perceive Him, but He perceives what our eyes see. He is the Subtle, the Aware” (103).

After declaring the Divine Majesty, the Quran instructs: don’t insult or mock the beliefs of non-believers. The Quran predicts that these people will not believe even if they were to witness miracles, so do not fret for them! “Most of them are ignorant”.

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Summary of Juz 8

Surat Al-Anam continued

How the devil misleads?

The idea of believing in one God was too much for the people of Makkah. They thought the Prophet was mad. But it was their leaders, referred to as the human devils who were misguided. Allah tells the messenger not to pay attention to their criticism since their world view was distorted by superstitious practices. These superstitions show their cowardly nature. For example, they wouldn’t eat meat on which the name of Allah had been invoked. Why do they do these evil things? Evil works look attractive: “Take for example a dead person who We resurrected and gave him a light to walk among people, can he be like someone who lives in darkness which he never leaves? (122)

This simile explains “The person Allah wishes to guide, He opens his mind to surrender to Allah, and whomever He lets go astray, his mind is closed as if he were struggling to climb skywards: by such means, Allah allows evil to come about on those who do not believe” (124). What influenced the sinners? The lure of the world and its delights.

Pagan superstitions about livestock: they fixed shares for idols and Allah. These misinformed superstitions aren’t benign but lead to serious sins including infanticide. Allah’s creative power; “He grows gardens, both with and without trellises, date palms, plants of different tastes, olives and pomegranates, some alike and others different. Eat of their fruits when they are ripe, give the needy their due on harvest day, and do not squander; He dislikes spendthrifts” (141).

The next section mentions the four pairs of domestic animals: camel, cow, sheep and goat. Allah created them for transport and food. The idolaters are misled and unreasonable.

The oneness of Allah is evident in nature, human history, conscience, self-evident truths and human interest. The result of this belief in Oneness of Allah is people become devout, honest and well-wishers of humanity. This goodness is summarized in the Ten Commandments.

The ten Commandments are the new contract: reject idolatry: care for parents: don’t kill children: never be indecent; Don’t kill; don’t misappropriate orphans’ property; be honest in weights and measures; be just; fulfil Allah’s contract; follow the straight path, and be responsible representatives of Allah.

The purpose of Allah’s revelation is to remove doubts, so why don’t you accept the new contract?

The Quran appeals to common sense and repeatedly invites people to see the reality: “You have nothing to do with those who divided their religion and made sects; their case rests with Allah, and He will inform them about what they did.” The Prophet is told to make his case decisively by announcing “My prayers, my sacrifices, my life, my death; are for Allah, Lord of all the realms. (162)

Surat al-Araf, The Heights. Juz 8 continues with this late Makkan surah which opens by describing the role of the Quran: guidance and a reminder. Otherwise, the consequences would be devastating. The story of Adam reveals the cause of human failure to follow the path of religion. Satan the arch enemy misleads them. So, we are alerted to his plots. His tools are deception that makes things appear attractive and humans readily fall into his trap. He appeals to the psychological hunger, lust, food, sense of belonging and honour. Satan did this with our father and mother Adam and Eve. He tempted them, and they fell into his trap but they quickly repented.

Dressing smartly can be a defence against indecency and arrogance. By linking clothing with piety, the Quran teaches the relationship of the outer to the inner, the physical to the spiritual, and the connection between words and behaviour.

The Quran is a warning and an authoritative reminder like earlier books. But the Makkans denied it. It instructs them to be righteous to earn reward and reserve a place in Paradise. In the Hereafter, all deeds will be weighed. The Quran persuades everyone to achieve it. But the Satan vows to mislead people, he succeeds with many. Satan said, “I shall wait by their straight path for a chance to lure them; then I will pounce on them from the front, their behind, and from their right and left, You will find most of them are ungrateful to You”(14-7).

How did he trap Adam and Eve? He whispered to the two of them, revealing their nakedness, of which they had until then been unaware”(18). This was the result of following his whisper. However, they quickly recognised their mistake and repented. “Our Lord, we’ve wronged ourselves. If You don’t forgive us and treat us kindly, we’ll be the losers” (23).

Modesty and the dress code The covering up of the private parts stops lewdness and reduces attracting the attention of the opposite sex. The Quran recommends dressing well and insists, “Children of Adam, we’ve revealed to you the idea of clothing for adornment and to cover your nakedness, but the clothing of piety is best of all. (26) So, modesty and shame help to escape Satan’s temptations. To dress smartly is piety (29-32).

To show the impact of modesty on human salvation the Quran rules: “My Lord has forbidden acts of indecency, whether openly or in secret; likewise any sin; unlawful rebellion; associating with Allah anything for which He has revealed no authority and saying things that you have no knowledge about Allah” (33).

Shirk is associating idols with Allah and is a serious sin. It deserves harsh punishment. Each successive generation of disbelievers will blame the other. “Whenever a community enters the Fire, it will curse its fellow community, up until each of them has followed all the others into it, and the last of them will say about the first of them, “Our Lord, here are those who misled us, so double their punishment in the Fire” (38).

After describing the scary fate of the people of Hell, the Quran turns to the righteous who recognised the gifts of Allah and worshipped Him. They shall live in Paradise!

The following sections describe the wretched state of the people of Hell; they plead for water to quench their thirst, but their request is declined. No one can help them, the idols they worshipped won’t benefit today.

How can you avoid this horrible state? Be humble in prayer to the Lord Who created the universe and work for peace on earth (56).

The last part of Juz 8 tells the human history of disobedience: the stories of the prophet Nuh, Saleh, Hud, Lut, Shoaib and Musa. The people of Nuh ignored his sincere advice (59-64); The people of Hud rebelled (65-72); the arrogance of people of ‘Ad lead them to disobey Salih (73-79); The people of the Prophet Lut rejected him as too puritanical (80-4); Prophet Shu’ayb stopped his people cheating (85-7).

These stories are invitations to Islam and provided reassurance for the Messenger and his followers. These Prophets were rejected, condemned, and some killed. But they continued teaching, preaching and mentoring the people. Finally, divine punishment destroyed them. This is a clear warning to the people of Makkah that if you do not accept my beloved Messenger you will face the same fate.

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Summary of Juz 9

Surat al-Araf continued

Prophet Shu’ayb who lived in Madyan, east of Sinai faced rejection and persecution: the arrogant leaders of his community said, “We will expel you from our town, Shu’ayb, you and all those who believe in you, unless you return to our way of worship.” Eventually, “they were seized by an earthquake so violent that they ended up lying face down in their homes” (91).

The Quran laments “had they become believers they would have been blessed” (97). The more one ignores the guidance the harder it becomes to believe, they become stubborn and arrogant.

From here the amazing story of Musa is told as he faces the rage of Pharaoh. “We sent Musa with our miracles to Pharaoh and his leaders, but they rejected them” (103). Musa asked, “let the Israelites go with me”. Pharaoh refuses to listen, despite seeing the miracle of Musa’s staff turning to a snake and his palm shining brighter than the sun. Instead, he challenges him to have a contest with his magicians. When the contest takes place and the magicians are confronted with the truth, they give in to Musa’s miracle and became Muslims. Pharaoh ordered that they are killed. They prayed “Our Lord, give us patience, and let us die in total submission to You” (126).

Pharaoh then threatens to punish the Israelites if they attempt to escape. Musa encourages them to be hopeful and patient. Eventually, Musa leads them out of Egypt. It is not too long before the Israelites forget the favour and make an outrageous demand “Musa, let us have a god-like their gods.” Of course, he is disgusted with their attitude.

Musa goes to Mount Sinai to speak with Allah. “We kept Musa on mount Sinai … for forty nights”. Meanwhile, they made a calf as a god. When Musa returned from Sinai he was appalled by their behaviour. The Quran explains their problem as arrogance that blinds people to the blessings of Allah’s guidance, “because they denied Our signs and paid no attention to them” (146).

“Then Musa chose seventy men from his people to meet Allah” (155). These elders demanded to see Allah literally, so they were struck with lightening for their rudeness that killed them. Musa prays for forgiveness; “Decree for us in this world what is good and in the Hereafter; we return in humility to serve you” (156). So they were resurrected.

After witnessing this disobedience, you wonder what does a man of faith look like? All we have seen is rebellion and rejection of the truth. Well, read this description of the people of Allah, the blessed ones: “those who believe him, honour him, support him, and obey the light that was sent with him, they shall be successful.” The beloved Mohammed is told to declare his universal message: “Say, People, I am the Messenger to you all from Allah, the sovereignty of the heavens and the Earth belongs to Him; He is the only God, He gives life and death. So, believe in Allah and His Messenger.”

After this digression, we again pick up the story of Musa where it was left, in Sinai. They needed water so each of the twelve tribes was given a fountain to drink from. Later, some of them settled on the shores of the Red sea and were commanded not to work on the Sabbath. Saturday was reserved for worship and rest. But they broke the Sabbath law; “When they disrespectfully continued doing what they were forbidden, We said, ‘Become like apes, despised!’” (166)

Further punishment was that they would be scattered around the world: “Let there arise against the wrongdoers, people who will inflict the terrible torment on them from now until Judgement Day.” A fact of Jewish history. A warning to Muslims too, if you disobey Allah, you will face the same.

The nature of humanity is Divine, made by Allah with the potential of recognising and believing the Creator. “Remember when Your Lord brought out the children of Adam from their sides and made them witnesses of each other. He said, ‘Am I not your Lord?’ They said, ‘Yes, we bear witness.’ This is so you will not be able to say on Judgement Day that we were unaware of this contract” (172). This was the first assembly of human souls; the pledge of loyalty.

Temptations are a problem that we find difficult to fight. The story of Ballam ibn Baur demonstrates this. He was a scholarly follower of Musa, who became arrogant and contested Musa; “If We wanted We could have raised his status because of it, but he inclined to lower things and followed his whims” (171).

The Quran gives an unusual example of the deniers, it likens them to a panting dog. “Anyone Allah guides is truly guided but anyone He allows to go astray; such people are the losers” (178). In order to avoid a wretched fate, we are cautioned to reflect and recite the beautiful names of Allah.

The reality of idolatry, of associating anything with the mighty Lord is highlighted as an injustice.

“Do they have legs to walk? Do they have hands to hold? Do they have eyes to see? Do they have ears to hear?” Satan is the main mastermind of idolatry, but the pious avoid being trapped by Satan: by seeking Allah’s refuge. He is Hearing, Knowing.” They are good listeners, who pay attention to the Quran.

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